Sunday, 31 May 2015



A transistor - Electronic component of a semiconductor material, usually with three terminals, allowing an input signal to control the current in the electrical circuit. Normally used to amplify, generation and transformation of electrical signals. In general, the transistor is any device that simulates the main feature of the transistor - the signal changes between two different states of the signal change at the gate electrode.

In the field, and current control of bipolar transistors in the output circuit is carried out by changing the input voltage or current. . A small change in the input quantities can lead to much greater change of the output voltage and current. This amplification properties of transistors used in analog technology (analog TV, radio, communication and so on. N.). Currently, analog technology is dominated by bipolar transistors (BT) (international term - BJT, bipolar junction transistor). Another important industry is the digital electronics equipment (logic, memory, processors, computers, digital communications, and so on. N.), Where, in contrast, bipolar transistors are almost entirely driven out of the field.

The first patents on the principle of the FETs were registered in Germany in 1928 (in Canada October 22, 1925) in the name of the Austro-Hungarian physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld. In 1934, German physicist Oskar Hile (Eng.) Russian. patented field-effect transistor. Field effect transistors (specifically MOSFETs) are based on a simple electrostatic field effect n physics it is much easier to bipolar transistors, and so they invented and patented long before the bipolar transistors. However, the first MOS transistor, forming the basis of the modern computing industry was made later of the bipolar transistor, 1960. Only in the 90s of XX century MOS technology has become dominate bipolar.

Below is the formal classification of current transistors, where the working fluid is a flow of charge carriers, and the states between which switching devices are determined by the magnitude of the signal: small signal - a big signal, the closed state - open state, which is implemented the binary logic of the transistor. Modern technology can operate not only the electric charge and magnetic moments, the spin of a single electron, phonon and light quanta, quantum states, in general.
The principle of operation and applications of transistors greatly depend on their type and internal structure, so the details of this attributable to appropriate


npn structure "reverse conduction."

pnp structure, "direct conductivity".

Saturday, 30 May 2015

Digital Cameras

Digital Cameras

Digital Camera  an electronic sensor to the optical image is converted into electronic data camera, unlike a conventional camera causes chemical changes on film by light to record an image. "Digital" is the English term originally Digital (digital) of Hong Kong-style translation, was brought to the mainland, and Taiwan use the "digital." According to different functions, structure and quality, currently more common digital camera can be divided into consumer digital camera (commonly known as fool the camera), class monocular digital cameras, digital SLR and mirror less interchangeable-lens camera four kinds. Also there are specific needs for highly specialized design of the digital medium format (120-format) camera.

In the digital camera, the light-sensitive charge-coupled device or a complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensor designed to replace traditional chemical photographic film camera function. The captured image data via integrated microprocessor after the adoption of certain coding algorithm stored in the camera's internal digital storage device (memory cards, micro hard disk, floppy disk or a rewritable disc) in. With the decline of flash memory and a substantial increase in prices, the vast majority of digital cameras are using flash memory as a storage solution.

Since the small, lightweight digital cameras, the film that has low cost, easy to save photos to share with post-editing and many other advantages, so that in a short time the rapid spread. Most digital cameras and has a recording, video recording motion pictures and other functions. In 2009, a total of digital cameras sold worldwide (including mobile phones with digital camera function) more than 900 million, while the traditional camera in the market has almost disappeared.

At present, more and more devices such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, personal computers, terminals and tablet computers are integrated into the digital camera.


Bluetooth Signals

Bluetooth  a wireless technology standard, used to allow fixed and mobile devices, the exchange of information between the short distance to form a personal area network (PAN). The use of short-Porter high frequency (UHF) radio waves, via 2.4 and 2.485 GHz ISM band for communication. 1994 by the telecom provider Ericsson developed this technique. It was originally designed in the hope that the establishment of wireless communication alternative versions of a RS-232 data lines. It is possible to link a plurality of devices, to overcome the problem of synchronization.

Bluetooth technology is by the Bluetooth SIG (SIG) is responsible for maintaining the technical standards, the alliance has more than 20,000 member companies, the distribution of its members on the field of telecommunications, computer, network and consumer electronic products. IEEE Bluetooth technology has been standardized as IEEE 802.15.1, but the standard is no longer continued to use.

Bluetooth technology was originally created by Ericsson. Ericsson's technology began in 1994 program, which is the study of low-power between mobile phones and other accessories, low cost method of wireless communication connection. The inventors hope to create a uniform set of rules (ISO protocol) for communications between devices, in order to resolve incompatible between users of mobile electronic devices. 1997 years ago, this concept contact Ericsson mobile device manufacturers, to discuss cooperation in the development of their projects, the results obtained support.
May 20, 1999, Sony Ericsson is easy, IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba and other industry leading the creation of "special interest group" (Special Interest Group, SIG), a precursor of the Bluetooth SIG, the goal is to develop a cost low, high efficiency, the Bluetooth technology standard free wireless connections within a short distance.
Today Bluetooth is managed by the Bluetooth SIG (Bluetooth Special Interest Group, called SIG). Bluetooth technology alliance in the world with more than 25,000 member companies, which are distributed in the telecommunications, computer, networking, and consumer electronics such as multiple fields. IEEE Bluetooth technology as IEEE 802.15.1, but now is no longer to maintain the standard. The Bluetooth SIG oversees the development, management certification program the Bluetooth specification, and maintain trademark rights. Manufacturer's equipment must comply with the Bluetooth SIG standards in order in the name of "Bluetooth devices" into the market. Bluetooth technology has a patent network, issued to compliant devices.

Friday, 29 May 2015

Infrared (IR) WAVES

Infrared (IR) WAVES

The IR, or infrared radiation is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths shorter than microwaves and terahertz radiation from the visible light but long. Infrared technology, which means that down the name adopted in Latin and consist of infra red English word meaning red and comes with the six-meaning red. Color red is the longest wavelength of visible light. The wavelength of the infrared radiation between 750 nano meters and 1 micrometer. In the normal human body temperature is around 10 micrometers made radiation.

Objects emit infrared radiation in wide spectra, but only because they can detect sensors for specific bandwidths are usually referred to the specific infrared bands. Therefore infrared band is divided into smaller subbands.
International Commission on Illumination (CIE) separating infrared radiation has 

proposed the following tape. 

IR-A: 700 nm-1400 nm

IR-B: 1400 nm to 3000 nm

IR-C: 3000 nm-1 mm

A partitioning format commonly used are as follows:
Near-infrared (NIR, IR-A DIN): 0.75-1.4 .mu.M between wavelengths. Because of the low amount of losses it is generally used in fiber optic communications. Night vision equipment is generally used at those wavelengths.

Redwell heats only the walls unlike conventional heaters warm the air. Walls are stored much longer than air and gives back slowly to room temperature environments. Therefore, it becomes impossible to disperse the walls and moisture stay dry. Another advantage is that the airflow does not pass to the movement of the powder is.

How to works Radio Waves

Symbol of radio waves

Radio waves music, speech,  and information may submit a seamless air millions of kilometers away, the thousands every day is a different way. Even if radio waves are invisible and cannot be touched by people, it has completely changed the history of humanity. Today, mobile phone, wireless phone and uses radio waves to communicate all of them if we are talking about thousands of wireless technologies such as these.
The few examples we use in daily life using radio waves are as follows:
• AM and FM radio broadcast
• Cordless home phones
• Wireless networks (the Internet)
• Remote-controlled toys
• Mobile Phones
• GPS receivers
• Satellite communications
The list goes on ... Although the radar and microwave ovens can barely stand to radio waves was unthinkable without NEVİGASYON and communications satellites and radio waves. Modern aviation and aircraft are using the dozens of different radio systems. The current fashion of today is wireless internet, which means it would be more convenient in the future.

Today all radio uses the sine waves to transmit data. The reason is the use of sine waves of many different people want to use radio waves and devices simultaneously. If there was a way to see the radio waves, you would see thousands of them in the form of sine wave is different. We have around your TV, radio, police-firefighters, satellite, mobile phone, radio wave devices such as GPS. Each has a different sine wave frequency of the radio waves, these waves determines how it spreads.
Any radio consists of two main parts:
1) Transmitter
2) Buyers

Transmitting any data (sound, pictures, etc.) Takes a message and converts the sine wave, respectively, by encoding it later if it transmits radio waves. The receiver receives and decrypts code that radio waves as a sine wave. It uses both the receiver and transmitter antennas to radiate and receive radio waves.

Thursday, 28 May 2015

Radio Transmitter

Radio Transmitter

Transmitters, generating high-frequency electromagnetic waves to be sent by way of the energy transmitted by the antenna are electronic devices. They are made in a variety of types according to their use of power and purpose. The main task of the transmitting antenna to provide power at a certain frequency, and to transmit information with the help of electromagnetic waves generated in this way. First time donors only could send high-frequency energy at a fixed frequency. Such transmitting continuous wave (CW Continuous wave) is called transmitters. With these information transmission is only possible in coded (such as Morse code)
Recently requested information (especially speech, music and video) of a carrier wave (Carrier Wave) is sent superimposed. This process is called modulation and such waves modulated continuous wave. MCW (Continious Wave Modulated) transmitter are divided into two main categories according to the modulation method.
1. Amplitude (Amplitude) modulated transmitters:
Double yanbantl full-makers carrier (DSB-Double side band).
Double-sideband suppressed carrier (DSB-SC = Double Side Band - Supressed Carrier)
2 Yanbantl single transmitter (SSB-Single Side Band)
Single-sideband suppressed carrier (SSB-SC = Single Side Band - Supressed Carrier)
Angle-modulated transmitters:
Frequency modulation transmitters (FM-freguency Modulation).
Phase modulation transmitters (AM-phase modulation).
Generally, three types of transmitters used in practice. These are:
AM transmitters.
FM transmitters.
SSB transmitters.
The simplest one AM transmitter consists of four main sections.

Oscillators solid.
Solid buffer (Buffer).
High Frequency (RF) power amplifier.
Modulator floor (this floor is not available in the CW transmitter).
Oscillator: This is the most important part of the transmitter. Radio Frequency (greater than 100 kHz) produces energy. The frequency of the energy generated must remain within certain limits here. Otherwise it cannot be monitored.
Modulator and audio frequency stage: the electrical signal obtained from the microphone is too small. Audio-frequency amplifier (solid) raises its desired level. The modulator is also an adaptive layer that transmits sound signals to the power stage. The power stage according to the intensity of the sound by influencing the frequency amplitude gain (amplitude) performs modulation.
A simple FM transmitter consists of the following layers:
Audio frequency amplifier and reactance modulator solid. (Reactance: Coil or alternating current resistance of the capacitor.)
Oscillators solid.
Solid bumper and the driver.
RF power amplifier solid.
Solid buffer (Buffer): Buffer solid, solid insulates power from the oscillator. Thus oscillator provides more stable work. If desired this layer may also remove two or three times the frequency of the oscillator, the frequency multiplier is called.
RF power level: This layer feeds in the desired signal power to the antenna; information from a modulator is superimposed on a carrier wherein the oscillator
The audio frequency amplifier and the reactance modulator: the signal from the microphone is applied to the reactance modulator raised to the desired level. Reactance modulator, the oscillator circuit capacitive or inductive reactance of the coil or remove it added. Thus, according to the intensity of sound frequencies by changing the oscillator frequency FM (Frequency Modulation) is provided.

Oscillator: generates radio-frequency energy within certain limits. (As standard FM radio channel is from the 85-108 MHz)

Buffer and driver: wherein the replication process is performed if both the frequency and the desired sealing action.

RF power amplifier: Frequency modulated signals from the antenna until the level rises will spread on the floor.

Transistor Radios

Transistor Radios

The first civilian transistor radio, called Regency TR-1, by the Association of Indianapolis City Industrial Development engineer Regency Indiana Department of Development, in November 1954 into the market. The price was $ 49.95 (equivalent to $ 361 in 2005), it has sold about 150,000. On the US market, the transistor radio until the early 1960s did drop below $ 20; later, "Made in Hong Kong" the influx of the United States to further reduce the price to $ 10 or less.
Amplifying transistor radio unit using a transistor instead of a tube, and thus more compact than tube radio, and more power. 1950 typical portable (tube) radio the size of a lunch box, built a number of large batteries: one or more A-type cell is responsible for heating the tube filaments, the remaining 45-90 volt "B" batteries to other circuitry. And a transistor radio can fit into a pocket, the weight but 250 g, 9V battery or a battery-powered single flashlight. (Now common ground 9V battery especially for power transistor radios)
Transistor radio is the existing number of communication devices simple. According to estimates, at least the existing 7,000,000,000 station in the world, almost all of them can listen to ordinary wave programs, and listen to FM programming models percentage is also growing rapidly. Some also listen to shortwave broadcasts. Most battery power. Because they use advanced electronic technology to millions of originals onto a single integrated circuit or chip becomes very small and cheap. Affix "transistor" It basically refers to the old small radio, also refers to a number of small radio, but the concept itself is no longer used today, because in essence, whether the radio is not pocket are based transistor.

Wednesday, 27 May 2015

Solar System of Energy

Solar System of Energy

Solar power system is divided into off-grid power systems, and power generation systems and distributed power generation system.

Grid power system consists of solar modules, controllers, batteries composition, such as the output power to 220V AC or 110V, also need to configure inverter.

Power generation systems is directly connected to the public grid after the direct current generated by the solar module and inverter pass into alternating current mains in line with requirements. And power generation systems have centralized large-scale power stations and networks are generally national power plants, the main feature is the power can be directly delivered to the grid by grid unified allocation of power to the user. However, this power plant investment, long construction period, large area, yet there is not much development. The small and decentralized power generation systems, especially BIPV power system, due to the small investment, the construction of fast, small footprint, forceful policy support, etc., is the mainstream of the grid.

Generation systems distributed, also known as distributed generation or distributed energy supply, refers to the user on-site or near-site configuration of smaller photovoltaic electric power generation and distribution systems to meet specific user needs, support the existing distribution network economic performance, or satisfies both requirements.

The basic equipment of distributed PV systems include photovoltaic modules, photovoltaic array bracket, DC combiner box, DC power distribution cabinet, and inverter, AC power distribution cabinets and other equipment, in addition to the power supply system monitoring and control, and environmental monitoring devices. Its mode of operation is in the presence of solar radiation conditions, solar module array photovoltaic systems convert solar energy to electrical energy output through the DC combiner box centralized into the DC power distribution cabinet, the inverse grid inverter into AC supply building their own load, excess or shortage of electricity through the grid connection to adjust.

Computer Hardware

computer hardware

The history of computer hardware can be classified into four generations, each characterized by significant technological change. A first boundary could be made between basic hardware it is strictly necessary for the normal operation of the equipment, and complementary, which performs specific functions.

1st Generation (1945-1956) implemented electronic vacuum tube. They were the first machines that displaced the electromechanical components (relays).

2nd Generation (1957-1963) developed electronic transistor. The discrete logic was very similar to the previous one, but the implementation was much smaller, reducing, among other factors, the size of a computer in remarkable scale.

3rd Generation (1964-present): based electronics ICs. This technology allowed integrates hundreds of transistors and other electronic components into a single integrated printed on a silicon wafer circuit. Computers thus considerably reduced cost, power consumption and size, increasing its capacity, speed and reliability, to produce machines such as exist at present.

4th generation (future): Probably it will originate when silicon circuits, high scale integrated, to be replaced by a new type of material or technology.
Another technological breakthrough often used to define the start of the fourth generation is the emergence of integrated circuits VLSI (very large scale integration), in the early eighties. Like the microprocessor, it did not mean the immediate change and the rapid disappearance of computers based on integrated circuits at lower scales of integration. Many implemented with VLSI technologies and MSI (medium scale integration) teams still successfully coexisted well into the 90s.

The Computer


A computer is made physically by numerous integrated circuits and many other components of support, extension and accessories, which together can perform various tasks with great speed and under the control of a program.

They constitute two essential parts, the hardware, which is its physical composition (electronics, cables, cabinet, keyboard, etc.) and its software, which is the intangible part (programs, data, information, etc.). One does not work without the othe

From a functional point of view is a machine that has at least a central processing unit, a main memory and a peripheral or input device and an output. Input devices allow data entry, the CPU is responsible for processing (arimético-logical operations) and output devices communicate them to other media. Thus, the computer receives data, processes it and outputs the resulting information, which can then be interpreted, stored, transmitted to another machine or device or simply printed; all at the discretion of an operator or user and under the control of a program.

That is programmable, allows you to perform a variety of tasks, this makes it a general-purpose machine (unlike, for example, a calculator whose only purpose is to calculate limitedly). Thus, based on input data, you can perform operations and troubleshooting in the most diverse areas of human activity (administrative, scientific, design, engineering, medicine, communications, music, etc.), including many issues that directly They would not be solvable or possible without your intervention.
Basically, the ability of a computer depends on its hardware components, while the variety of tasks lies mostly run software that supports and contains installed.

While this machine can be of two different analog or digital types, the first type is used to few and very specific purposes; the most widespread, used and known is the digital computer (general purpose); so that (even popular) Generally speaking, when talking about "the computer" is referring to digital computer. They are of mixed architecture, called hybrid computers, they also still special purpose.

Tuesday, 26 May 2015

Cell Phones or Mobile Phones

mobile Phones

From the century, mobile phones have acquired capabilities that go far beyond just limited to call, translate or send text messages.

The mobile phone is communication through devices that are not connected by any cables. The transmission medium is air and the message is sent by electromagnetic waves. For mobile phone communication is an electronic wireless device used to access and use the services of the cellular network is used.

It is also known as cell phone in most Latin American countries because the service operates through a network of cells, where each Cell is a cell signal, but there are mobile telephone networks.
The mobile phone today has become a very useful tool because of the easy communication between people. The devices have different applications that can facilitate various daily tasks.

Mobile telephony is basically made up of two parts: a communication network and terminals that allow access to that network.
you can say that has incorporated the functions of devices such as PDAs, camera, camera video, portable video game console, electronic calendar, alarm clock, calculator, micro-projector, portable radio, GPS and multimedia player (to the point of causing the obsolescence of some of them) as well as to perform a multitude of actions in a small, portable device that carry almost all the inhabitants of developed countries and a growing number of people in developing countries.

Digital Audio Player


A player with flash memory

A digital audio player is a device that stores, organizes and plays digital audio files. It is commonly referred to as MP3 player, or just MP3 (due to the ubiquity of the * .mp3 format), but digital audio players often play other file formats as some other proprietary formats other than MP3, for example Windows Media Audio (WMA) and Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) and completely free of patents or are open as Ogg Vorbis, FLAC, and Speex (all part of the open Ogg multimedia project) formats. Some players support restrictive DRM technology that are part of some proprietary formats such as DRM WMA, which are often part of certain paid download sites.

There are mainly three types of digital audio players:

MP3 CD players - devices that play CD. Often, they can be used to play audio CDs and data CDs containing MP3 home or other digital audio files.

Flash-based players - These are devices that store digital audio files on internal or external memory, such as memory cards. Usually these are devices with little storage capacity, typically between 128MB and 64GB, which can often be expanded with additional memory. Cheap and are impact resistant. (Currently they are the most used and has significantly increased its capacity can be several gigabytes of capacity). They are not equipped with CD and have a USB port.

Hard drive based players - Devices that read digital audio files from a hard drive. These players have larger storage capacities from 1.5GB to 180GB, depending on hard drive technology. A counterpart of flash based are sensitive to shock or even the slightest vibration can spoil when operated. Apple iPod, Creative Zen and Commodore Evic are examples of popular hard drive based players.