Sunday, 28 June 2015



Diode is a kind of asymmetrical double electrode conductance electronic components. Ideal diode in the forward conductive between its two electrodes (anode and cathode) have infinitely small resistance, and the reverse when there are infinite resistance, ie, the current is allowed to flow from a single direction only through the diode.

Diode having an anode and a cathode two terminals, current can only flow to a single direction. That is, the cathode current may flow from the anode, and not from the cathode to the anode. To diode possess one-way nature of such applications, often called "rectification" function. In the vacuum tube, with a voltage applied between the electrodes so that hot electrons can reach the anode from the cathode, thus rectifying effect. The alternating current into direct current, comprising a radio receiver for a radio signal modulation, are accomplished by the rectifier.

Reverse circulation because of its forward blocking characteristics, diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. However, in practice, diodes and do not exhibit such a perfect switch resistance, but showing a more complex non-linear electrical characteristics - which are determined by the specific type of diode technology. In general, only in the forward reaches the threshold voltage, the diode will start to work (this state is called forward bias) A change in the voltage drop across the diode is forward biased only to do with current, and is a function of temperature. Therefore, this feature can be used to the temperature sensor or reference voltage.
Semiconductor diode non-linear current - voltage characteristics, thereby forming an impurity may be different depending on the selected semiconductor material and a semiconductor doped with different impurities to alter.

Diode characteristics after the change in the use of switches used in addition to the way, there are many other features, such as: used to adjust the voltage (Zener diode), thereby limiting the high-voltage protection circuit (APD), radio tuner (varactor), generating a radio frequency oscillation (tunnel diode, Gunn diode, IMPATT diode) and generate light (light emitting diode).

Semiconductor diode, there is the use of P-type and N-type joints PN junction of two semiconductor effect, but also the type of Schottky rectifying action to achieve the effect produced by the use of a metal-semiconductor bonding. If the PN junction type diode, the P-type anode side is, N-type side is a cathode.

Saturday, 27 June 2015

Power Supply

Power Supply

Power Supply  usually it refers to the source of electricity. It could be a system or device for supplying electric power, or other device capable of providing energy to the load output of the power supply.

Power supply to other forms of energy into electrical energy device called a power supply.
Generator can convert mechanical energy into electrical energy, batteries can convert chemical energy into electrical energy generator battery itself is not charged, its positive and negative charges respectively poles, positive and negative charge generated by the voltage (current voltage is under the effect of the charge directional movement formed), there would have been in charge of the conductor to produce current only voltage can, when the battery is connected to the conductor to generate electricity poles and the release of positive and negative charge out, when the charge is dissipated, also do you charge flow (pressure) disappeared. batteries and other known power supply. Through the transformer and rectifier, the alternating current into direct current power supply device called a rectifier power. To provide an electronic device called a signal source. Transistor can be amplified signal sent, again amplified signal is transmitted to the back of the circuit to go. Transistor on the back of the circuit can also be seen as a signal source. Rectifier power supply, sometimes called the power supply source.

Friday, 26 June 2015



LED-backlit LCD TV is the use of light-emitting diodes (LED) as a liquid crystal display backlight TV. this does not mean that television use light-emitting diodes for image display With the light-emitting diode TVs increasingly competitive market, coupled with the light emitting diode applications matures, various TV manufacturers have actively into the light-emitting diode-backlit LCD TV, an attempt at a home television on the occasion of regime change can come out on top.

Types of light-emitting diode backlight technology;

LED back-light technology can be divided into direct type (direct back-lit or full LED array back-lit) and side-illuminated (edge LED back-lit) are two, and light-emitting diodes which are used in direct-divided into white light diode and red, green and blue light-emitting diode two kinds.

1-Direct type light-emitting diode backlight technology;

Direct type LED back-light technology is the more pieces of light-emitting diodes arranged in an array, placed behind the LCD diffuser and directly illuminated LCD. Thus, the direct type can comply with different parts of the screen brightness changes quickly fine-tune the brightness of the light-emitting diode, greatly improve the level of dynamic contrast ratio to the plasma display. The disadvantage is the need to use a large number of light-emitting diodes, and higher prices.
Had a direct type LED back-light use white LED, also used red, green and blue color LEDs (RGB LED) using RGB LED can have a wider spectrum of light, that have a wider color field.

2-Side-light emitting diode backlight technology;

Side-light emitting diode backlight technology is to white light emitting diodes on four sides of the LCD, LCD size with the LCD after a close reflective film, light emitting diodes LCD with photos from the gap between the reflective film inside, reflective film on a specially designed micro LED lighting pattern can come back after the LCD according to the light for 90 ° reflection. These reflective sheet was fine in the case without astigmatism sheet also enables the average light-emitting diode light distribution to shine LCD back.

Conventional side-illuminated light-emitting diode backlight brightness compliance can not quickly adjust brightness change different parts of the screen, but recent changes in vendor compliance screen success with the side illuminated LED technology limited quickly adjust brightness.

Tuesday, 23 June 2015

LED or light emitting diode


LED is a light emitting diode (Light Emitting Diode, LED) for short, also known as light-emitting diodes, the semiconductor component is generally used as the indicator, a display panel, which not only can efficiently direct contact Mitutoyo photovoltaic electrical energy into light energy, while the operating voltage is low (some only a little over volts).

And have the most up to tens of thousands of hours to 100,000 hours of life, but have not as conventional bulbs fragile, and the advantages of energy saving.

It is a semiconductor diode that can put energy into light energy; often abbreviated is an LED. Like ordinary diode emitting diode is a PN junction composed, also with unidirectional conductivity. When coupled to the light emitting diode forward voltage, injected into the holes from the P region and the N zone area by the N electrons injected into the P region, near the PN junction within a few microns were empty and Electronics and P region of the N region Point complex, resulting in the spontaneous emission of fluorescence. Energy states of electrons and holes which are different in different semiconductor materials. When an electron and hole recombination energy released somewhat different, more energy released, the shorter the wavelength of light is emitted. Commonly used hair red, green or yellow light diode.

Friday, 19 June 2015

Liquid crystal display LCD


Liquid Crystal Display, abbreviations: LCD flat thin display device, by a number of color or monochrome pixel composition, placed in front of the light source or reflector side. Low-power liquid crystal display, so much favored by engineers, for battery of electronic equipment.

Each pixel of the liquid crystal display consists of the following parts: two layers of liquid crystal molecules suspended in a transparent electrode (indium tin oxide) between a columns outside on both sides with two mutually perpendicular polarization directions of the polarizing filters. If there is no liquid crystal between the electrodes, wherein the light through a polarizing filter whose polarization direction of the sheet, and the second polarizer perfectly vertical, and therefore is completely blocked. However, if the polarization direction of light through a polarizing filter sheet is rotating LCD, then it can be filtered through another polarizing sheet. Liquid crystal rotates the polarization direction of the light can be controlled by an electrostatic field, in order to achieve light control.

Liquid crystal molecules are easily affected by the induced charge arising from the applied electric field. A small amount of electric charge is applied to the transparent electrode of each pixel or sub-pixel to produce an electrostatic field, the liquid crystal molecules are induced by the electrostatic field induced charge and static torque, leaving the liquid crystal molecules are originally aligned to produce a rotating change, so also changed by rotating the amplitude of light. Changing the certain angle, it is possible through the polarization filters.

Before the charge applied to the transparent electrodes, the liquid crystal molecules are arranged to determine the alignment of the electrode surface, chemical surface electrode may be used as seed crystals. In the most common TN liquid crystal, the liquid crystal vertically aligned upper and lower electrodes. Liquid crystal molecules are spirally arranged, through a polarization filters rotated polarization direction of the light after passing through the LC panel, thereby through another polarizer. In this process, a small portion of the light blocked by the polarizer from the outside appears to be gray. After the charge is applied to the transparent electrodes, the liquid crystal molecules almost completely along the field direction are arranged in parallel, and therefore the direction of polarization of light through a polarizing filter sheet is not rotating, and therefore the light is completely blocked.

Wednesday, 10 June 2015



Multimeter  is a multi-purpose electronic measuring instruments, mainly used to measure the field of physical, electrical, electronic, etc., generally contain ammeter (ammeter), a voltage meter (voltmeter), resistance meter (ohmmeter) and other functions , also known as universal design, multi-meter, multimeters, multimeter or multimeter.

Pointer multimeter known as VOM (Volt-Ohm meter, volt - ohm meter) in English, but this name is not usually used for digital multimeter.

Multimeter with a portable device used for basic troubleshooting, but also a desktop device is placed in a factory or laboratory workbench.

Some meter resolution can reach seven or eight digits; such a device, it often occurs in the laboratory is used as a reference voltage or resistance, or to adjust the standard multi-function performance.

Basic measurement functions:
Current, voltage and resistance measurements, generally regarded as the universal plan of basic functions. Early multimeter manufacturers AVO brand name of these three is the unit of measurement device capable of measuring the abbreviation: Ampere (Ampere), V (Volt), ohms (Ohm)

Generally we have a basic multimeter measurement functions:

DC voltage (DCV)

DC current (DCmA, DCA)

AC voltage (ACV)

Resistance (Ω, KΩ, MΩ)

AC current (ACmA, ACA) not all multimeters have, especially low-level multimeter.
Pointers and digital multimeter:

Pointer multimeter, using a magnetic field deflecting pointer dial, this watch head and the same classic galvanometer; digital multimeter is used to display LCD, vacuum fluorescent display (VFD), LED, OLED, etc. In addition, it also uses digital tube early.

Pointer multimeter on the new and second-hand market are hard to find. But because zero and accurate readings from the instrument panel are prone to error, and difficult to scale subdivision restrictions in accuracy and resolution are not as digital meters. And the digital meter voltage profile with a high input impedance, and can immediately read the number, the pointer meter unless there are marked directly refers to the value of large-scale , It shall be observed and counted within the meaning of the small-scale relations with neighboring large measure, it read really value. However, in some cases, such as speed of response header, easy to quickly outline that value, or the value of the response in terms of jitter, etc., remain some of the advantages, and the internal circuit is simple, easy to learn measuring circuit theory, therefore, part of the some situations or circumstances are still in use. In addition, some digital meters have reacted faster than the number of changes strip show, emulate pointer effects to quickly grasp the changes in the value of the benefit.

In order to improve pointer multimeter input impedance voltage profile and reduce the impact of treatment of the circuit under test, and some high-end pointer multimeter uses vacuum tubes to amplify the input signal, this design is also known as vacuum multimeter voltmeter (VTVM, Vacuum Tube Volt Meters) or vacuum multimeter (VTMM, Vacuum Tube Multimeters). Such as the use FET to amplify the input signal, it is FETVM.

Digital multimeter with digital meter based and is specifically called a digital multimeter (DMM, Digital MultiMeter). In this device, the measured signal is converted into a digital voltage and digital pre-amplifier, and then by the digital display directly display the value; thus avoiding parallax when reading the error caused.

Similarly, better systems and electronic circuit technology, but also to improve the measurement accuracy. General basic accuracy pointer instrument (DC voltage range) between 2% to 5%, the common basic accuracy of 3 to 4%. Digital portable digital multimeter common portable type basic accuracy of 0.5% to 1%, advanced models, it can reach ± 0.025%, and the table device as much as one millionth of accuracy.

Monday, 8 June 2015

Resistor or Resistance

Resistor color code

In electromagnetism, the resistance is the ability of an object to hinder current through to the equation is defined as

R= v/r

Wherein, R is the resistance, V is the voltage across the object, I is the current through the object.
Assuming that the object has a uniform cross-sectional area, the resistance and resistivity, proportional to the length, and inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area.

SI units, the resistance in ohms (Ω, Ohm). Resistance reciprocal conductance in siemens (S).
The temperature is assumed constant, many substances will abide by Ohm's law, objects consisting of these substances, the resistance is constant, not with the current or voltage. These substances referred to as "ohm substance"; failure to comply with Ohm's law matter is "non-ohmic material." R circuit symbol often used to represent, for example: R1, R02, R100 and so on.

Wire like a class of objects, having a low resistance, can be very efficient current transfer, such objects called "conductor." Usually by conductor such as copper, gold and silver-metal manufacturing has excellent conductive properties, or inferior conductive properties of aluminum.

The resistor is a circuit element having a specific resistance. Raw materials used in the preparation of the resistor there are many; what materials should be used, depending on the specified resistance, energy dissipation, and so accurate, and cost factors.

Suppose wire conducting a high frequency alternating current, since the skin effect, the effective cross-sectional area of the wire decreases. Assume several parallel wires together, due to the proximity effect, the effective resistance of each wire will be greater than the resistance of a single wire. For ordinary household AC power, since the frequency is low, the effect is very small, you can ignore these effects.

Friday, 5 June 2015

Direct current

Direct current

Direct Current, DC is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. DC current, by batteries, thermocouples, solar cells or commutator motor generator. Direct current can flow through the conductor such as wire, but may flow through the semiconductor, insulator, or even capable of electron or ion beam shape by vacuum. DC current is constant direction, and thus distinguished from alternating current (AC).

DC current can be called from by using rectifiers, which includes electronic components (usually) or electromechanical components  a current is supplied only on alternating current electric current switching apparatus of the flow in one direction. DC current can be made into an alternating current of the inverter or the motor generator.

The first commercial power transmission (by Thomas Edison in the late nineteenth century, the development of) the use of direct current. Since the DC current significant advantages over alternate transformation and transmission, and today almost all of the AC power distribution. In the mid-1950s, HVDC transmission, is now an option, rather than the long-distance high-voltage AC power system. For applications such as DC third rail power system, AC was assigned to a substation, which uses a rectifier power is converted to direct current.

DC current to charge the battery, and in almost all electronic systems as a power source. A very large number of DC power for the production of aluminum and other electrochemical processes. DC Some railway propulsion, especially in urban areas, is used to transmit large amounts of electricity HVDC on the remote site or an AC power grid interconnection.

Alternating Current

Alternating Current

 Alternating Current, abbreviations: AC refers to the size and direction of the current varies cyclically, running average over a cycle is zero. Unlike direct current does not change direction over time.

Generally sinusoidal waveform. AC can effectively transmit electricity. But in fact there are other applications of waveform, such as triangular wave, square wave. Mains life is having to use the AC sinusoidal waveform.

Once discovered electromagnetic induction, the method generates an alternating current was known. Early finished by the British Michael Faraday (Michael Faraday) developed with the French Hippolyte Pike Xi (Hippolyte Pixii) at all.
In 1882, the British electrician James Gordon built a large two-phase alternators. Lord Kelvin and Sebastian Fei Landi (Sebastian Ziani de Ferranti) developed early alternators, frequency between 100 Hz to 300 Hz.

In 1891, Nikola Tesla made "high frequency" (15,000 Hz) of the alternator patents.
In 1891, the multi-phase AC generator is used to supply current, alternating current frequency thereafter alternator usually designed Hz to 100 Hz in 16 rooms, with an arc lamp, incandescent lamp or electric motor use.

According to the law of electromagnetic induction, when the magnetic field around the conductor changes, the induced current in the conductor. Normally, rotating magnet called the rotor conductor wound on the core of the coil fixed group, called the stator, a magnetic field when it is over, they generate electricity. It called basic machine to generate AC alternator.

Thursday, 4 June 2015

Power Capacitors

Power Capacitors

Power capacitors for power systems and electric equipment capacitors. Any two metallic conductors separated by a dielectric medium, constitute a capacitor. The size of the capacitance of a capacitor, its dielectric properties and geometry between the two plates to decide. When the capacitor is used in the AC voltage.

Power capacitors use can be divided into eight kinds:

 01- shunt capacitor. Formerly known as phase shifting capacitors. Reactive power is mainly used to compensate the inductive load power system to improve power factor, improve voltage quality and reduce line losses.

02- series capacitor. Connected in series with the power frequency high voltage transmission and distribution lines to the distribution of the compensation circuit inductance, improving the system of static and dynamic stability, improve the quality of the line voltage, longer transmission distance and increasing transmission capacity.

03-coupling capacitor. HF communications are mainly used high-voltage power lines, measurement, control, protection, and as a member of extracting electrical energy use.

 04- Breaker capacitors. Formerly known as the equalizing capacitors. Parallel play equalizing effect on fracture in EHV breakers, the voltage between each fracture in the breaking process and even when disconnected, and to improve the extinguishing characteristics of the circuit breaker breaking capacity increase.

05- Electric capacitors. For the frequency range of 40 to 24,000 Hz electric equipment system to improve power factor, improve voltage or frequency circuit characteristics.

06- Pulse capacitors. Mainly from the energy storage effect, it is used as impulse voltage generator, the impact of current generators, test tank circuit breakers and other basic energy storage element.

 07- DC and filter capacitor. For HVDC devices and high-voltage rectifier filter device.

08- Standard capacitor. For high voltage measuring dielectric loss frequency circuit, a capacitor or used as a standard measurement of high voltage capacitor voltage dividing means.

Carved in the power system HV power capacitors (6KV above) and low-voltage power capacitors (400V)

Low Voltage Power Capacitor oil paper divided by nature self-healing power capacitors and power capacitors, power capacitors by function common and intelligent power capacitors do not repeat the general formula, focusing on intelligent power capacitor.

Monday, 1 June 2015



Microphone, also known as An electro-acoustic equipment, is a microphone, a sound transducer converts electrical voltage is generated by sound waves to the electro-acoustic components, and then converted to electricity. For a variety of public address equipment. Microphone wide range of simple circuit.

Analysis of the microphone circuit is mainly controlled by two things: (1) signal transmission loop analysis, relatively simple analysis of various microphone input jack circuits. (2) Analysis of the microphone amplifier, microphone amplifier is a low noise audio amplifier small-signal analysis mic level control circuit is not difficult

The microphone generates an electrical signal by the motion of the magnetic field conductor. Vibrating diaphragm driven by a coil so that the coil in a magnetic field generates an induced current. Features: Firm structure, stable performance, durability, low price; the frequency characteristics of a good, in the frequency range 50-15000Hz flat amplitude-frequency characteristic curve; good point; no DC voltage, easy to use, low noise.

Characteristics, amplitude-frequency characteristic curve flat in the audio frequency range, which is better than the dynamic microphones; non-directional; high sensitivity, low noise, sound soft; the output signal level is relatively large, low distortion, good transient response, this is less than the advantage of dynamic microphones; unstable operating characteristics, low frequency sensitivity with the increase in the use of time and decline, life is short, we need to create a DC power supply is inconvenient to use at work.

There condenser microphone preamplifier, of course you have to have a power supply, due to the volume relationship, the power supply is usually placed outside the microphone.
In addition to supplying the polarization voltage of the capacitor of the diaphragm, but also for the tube or transistor preamplifier supply voltage necessary. We call it the phantom power.

Integrated circuits

Integrated circuits

An integrated circuit (IC), also known as chip or microchip, is a structure of small dimensions of semiconductor material, a few square millimeters of area on which electronic circuits are generally manufactured by photolithography and which is secured in an encapsulated plastic or ceramic. The encapsulation has appropriate metallic conductors for connection between the IC and a printed circuit.

Integrated circuit is a pill or solid chip found in all or most of the necessary electronics embedded in a resin, to perform some function. These components are mostly transistors, although they also contain resistors, diodes, capacitors, etc.
Considering the level of integration (number of components) integrated circuits are classified as:

SSI (Small Scale Integration) small level: less than 12

MSI (Medium Scale Integration) means: 12-99

LSI (Large Scale Integration) Large: 100-9999

VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) large: from 10 000 to 99 999

ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration) ultra large: not less than 100 000

As for the integrated functions, the circuits are classified into two groups:
Analog integrated circuits.
They can consist from simple encapsulated together without bonding between them until complete devices such as amplifiers, oscillators or even complete Radio receivers’ transistors.
Digital integrated circuits.

They can range from simple logic gates (AND, OR, NOT) to the most complicated as microprocessors.